What we call chaos is just patterns we haven't recognized. What we call random is just patterns we can't decipher.
How about an abstract approach to adventure game design? Or at least to the puzzles in the adventure game - that could be useful!
The General Pattern that Adventure Games take
An objective or task is given or hinted at.
become a ninja, save the world, rescue a girl, save a kingdom, get that guys hat ...
The objective or task is (usually) not immediately obtainable.
Attempting to achieve the task or objective will explain why it's currently not obtainable.
the ninja master lives in Japan and you live in Australia, you don't know who bought the nuclear weapons, there's a big forest infront of the tower where the girls imprisoned, the guy with the hat has a big dog ...
The task or objective may then be split into subtasks or objectives, and at the finest granularity are the puzzles. I'm interest in puzzles because they seem to have a much broader application to gaming as a whole.
Simply put puzzles look like this:
PROBLEM -> SOLUTION.
Most of my examples will be culled from Monkey Island One. If you've not played it, then beware of spoilers.
Problem: You can't get into the kitchen because the cook always stops you.
Solution: Wait until the cook is serving the pirates food, then go to the kitchen.
We only want a rough mechanically idea of what's going on so we might formalize this as
You might be able to think of several puzzles that could fit into the above slots, and that's why I think looking at these puzzles is a good idea. We might expand the above formalization to dictate what's being guarded:
The solution temporal means you must do some action at a given time - maybe at night, or on tuesday or when someone is distracted. Next up we'll look at the types of problem I've identifed, then some soultions I've identified and finally a big example list.
Problems can be a little fuzzy in their boundaries.
There is a FOO stopping you from doing something, it may block a location, it may be guarding an item, or an NPC.
Prototypical Example: The bridge troll guarding a bridge.
Unprotoypical Expample: Bad breath guarding an NPC - you won't talk to him with bad breathe.
Your character wants or needs something but cannot directly get it. This maybe knowledge, money, training, ...
Prototypical Example: The sword costs 300 gold.
To proceed the character must have a certain item. The character might need a password, to be part of certain group, to have certain clothes, ...
Prototypical Example: A locked door that requires a key.
An item that you need to use keeps dissapearing before you can use it. Maybe you need a gold key to open a door in the thieves market - but it's always stolen when you get to the door, or you need to transport acid but it dissolves the container.
Prototypical Example: ?
This is a problem the player might be unaware off and it's potentially a very hard problem. There's an item, destination or NPC that the player needs but it's somehow hidden. A file in a cake, tree house city up a tree trunk, secret passage, long lost master trainer... you might need a microscope, telescope or something that allows you to see the hidden thing, or you might need to pick up or move a concealing object.
Prototypical Example: File in a cake.
FOO out of reach
You can see, smell, hear, see evidence or have been told of FOO but you can't physically get it. This is closely related to want FOO. Maybe it's too high up, or maybe you can't catch it. Think a mouse, or a parachute in a tree, or a treasure chest deep under water, a monkey with a gold ring, a lost city, an island, the moon.
Prototypical Example: A box on a top shelf that you can't reach. The fabled city of gold.
You character is in someway trapped and needs to escape, perhaps locked in a room, a cement block on their feet and sinking underwater, tied up and all the variations on the theme.
Prototypical Example: Thrown into prison.
If you stay where you are and do nothing you will die (or similar). Think of an oncoming flood, your underwater and going to drown, there's a biker gang approaching, the police are coming for you, there's an evil alien after you, the ground is crumbling, the bombs going to go off, angry bears, BEES! (Can sometimes be similar to trapped.)
A problem may have more that one solution or a combination of solution pieces.
New Item Perception
An item must be seen in a new light, that pot could be helmet, the bat could be boomerang, this is something the user has to understand in their head, or it be required that the character formally understands this knowledge. For instance you may need to look at the bat, then the character might say "Hey looks a bit like a boomerang" then the game will promptly rename it baaterang and you will now be able to use it as different item.
Prototypical Example: Water as a mirror, Paper clip as lock pick.
You need to combine, two, usually inventory, items to produce a more useful item. Poison and meat creates drugged meat, cat hair and glue creates fake side burns, gold foil and a toy badge creates a police badge ...
Prototypical Example: Poison and meat to create drugged meat.
Trial and Error
Generally something to be avoided but can be an amusing distraction. What's the correct offering to hillside tribe, how should a certain machine be adjusted or put together, what order should three levers be pressed in, how should a conversation tree be navigated.
Prototypical Example: Pull three levers in the correct order to open the door.
Obvious Item Use
Using an item straight forwardly on something other object, or performing a straight forward action to an object. A key on a door, the fish with the troll that wants fish, the money with the shopkeeper.
Prototypical Example: Give money to the shopkeeper.
Change Item State
Very closely related to obvious item use but specifically items that will change the current item - eating a cake, smashing a glass, burning wood to get charcoal, cooking raw meat, opening the box...
Prototypical Example: Eating a cake to get a file. Opening a container
Warning this can be a very difficult solution, you must do a certain action at a certain time - enter the kitchen when the chef isn't looking, scarifice the virgin when there's full moon, spit when the winds blowing with you, throw the bomb when the gas fire goes out ... at all other times the action will fail.
Prototypical Example: Enter a room when the room owners isn't there or is distracted.
Monkey See Monkey Do
This is quite a general meaning - you might see a NPC give a password, well then you follow his lead and say the same word, or you might see him do a combination, or you might physically follow him down the streets to see where he goes.
Prototypical Example: Follow the NPC to his secret place / treasure.
Do the same action more than once, it won't succeed on the first action but will succeed on a subsequent repition. For example a wooden door kicking it once may do nothing, the second time you kick it it might break, you might have to ask an NPC about something twice to show that you're really interested. These solutions can also be quite difficult.
Prototypical Example: Breaking something, smashing a bar window with a hammer for instance, chopping down a tree with a saw.
Can be even more difficult than temporal. An action will only succeed if the character is in a certain place, avoid the patrol by standing in the shadows, shoot the apple by standing on the hillock, be behind the man when you hit him with the bat ...
Prototypical Example: Hiding in the shadows so you can't be seen.
Bait Item Use
Different than obvious item use. With obvious item use we give the fish-wanting-troll the fish. With bait item use we throw the fish in the river and the troll jumps in after it. We "bait" the river. Bait Item Use, indirectly solves the problem - something nearby is interacted with in the hopes it will distract or remove the problem. Throwing a rabid chipmunk into a chefs kitchen so you can steal his wash cloth, putting cheese in a mouse trap, putting an attractive women across the road to make a bouncer move away from a door.
Prototypical Example: Cheese in a mouse trap to catch a mouse you cannot directly catch.
Real World Knowledge
The puzzle requires some aspect of real world knowledge. This includes nearly every puzzle but this pattern highlights a puzzle where it's especially true. Formulating a chemical compound, using magnets to move metal objects, knowing the to syphon petrol you usually start by sucking the pipe with your mouth, that a strong magnet will wipe a video cassette, that salt wards off evil ...
If the knowledge required is too obscure it may make the game very hard.
Prototypical Example: Balloons are often filled with helium, helium is lighter than air, helium can change your voice.
Sabotage (high level)
Stop something working, prevent something from happening, if you want to get a better job in a company you might sabotage the competition using laxatives in there drink, talking to them, distracting them with a light, you could remove a cars spark plugs, put a penny on train tracks ...
Prototypical Example: A spanner between two cogs.
Trade is a resticted version of:
Want Foo -> Simple Item Use
It's only where to get something you must give something first, so it's more commonly.
Want Foo -> Simple Item Use (give)
You want the magic axe but the warrior wants a replacement weapon before he'll hand it over. This is the nornal trade puzzle. It's not really a trade puzzle if you can hit him on the head with a spade and then take the axe which is what the unrestricted Want Foo -> Simple Item Use would allow. Unless you say you were trading a blow on the head with a shovel for an axe ... but I think the warrior may want to dispute that.
Need To Travel
A special case of FOO out of reach, where FOO is a location. Think Monkey Island in the secret of Monkey Island. Or the secret herb patch in a forest.
FOO out of reach(location)
The solution maybe be a long series of puzzles.
Some notes about the above catergories
All catergories are human invention and exist only in our heads. Few catergory systems are perfect. Some puzzles are better and more satisfying than others. The main problem with this is that it does not differenciate between good puzzles and lack luster ones. So with that said there are a few I'd like to focus on here:
I think in Monkey Island 2 you had to close an open door to find something on the back of it. At the time an extremely tricky puzzle because it's an easily overlooked thing.
The same kind of thing with picking up an item that you would imagine to be unpickupable such as a poster on a board of other posters. The poster might be useful in itself or reveal a hole or a different poster.
It's worth noting this list doesn't say much about fashioning a good game either. For instance in monkey island one there's some great foreshadowing where you get money from the circus for being fired out of a canon with a pot on your head, then later you fire yourself out of a canon with a pot on your head to get to Monkey Island.
Big Example List
These examples are culled from Monkey Island 1, if you haven't played the game yet I advise you miss this section out.
Release the prisoner - Monkey Island 1
The prisoner is stuck in his cell. Grog will dissolve the bars lock, unfortunately it also dissolves the cup. To solve this problem you must keep transfering the grog from cup to cup.
Problem: Temporal Object
Solution: Repetition, Combine Items
You must repeatedly transfer the grog from cup to cup.
Canon Job - Monkey Island 1
You wish to get fired from a canon for money but your potential employers are unwilling to fire you without a helmet. You give them them a cooking pot and they agree to fire you.
Problem: Key Request
Solution: New Item Perception, Obvious Item Use
Guardian Dogs - Monkey Island 1
There are dangerous dogs blocking your path.
You must realize a petal causes sleep, then you must combine the petal with meat then you must give the drugged meat to the dogs.
Solution: New Item Perception, Combine Items, Obvious Item Use
Getting a birds fish - Monkey Island 1
A bird is eating a fish on the dock. You want the fish but everytime you approach it flies away with the fish. If you stand in a certain place, a board rises and hits the bird knocking it away - leaving the fish for you.
Solution: Spatial Location
Swordsman Training - Monkey Island 1
You want the swordsman to train you but he won't do it unless you have a sword and give him money. Once you have the sword you must show him and once you have the gold you must give it him.
Problem: Want FOO
Solution: Obvious Item Use (gold), Obvious Item Use (sword)
Trapped - Full Throttle
At the start of the game you're trapped in a dumpster.
If you punch the hatch it will open, freeing you.
Solution: Obvious Interaction.
Want To Enter A Trailer - Full Throttle
You want to enter a trailer, there's a door and a man stopping you, he won't let you in.
If you kick the door when he's talking you'll kick the door down and flatten the guy in the trailer.
Solution: Temporal + Obvious Item Interaction
Dog Guarding the Junk Yard - Full Throttle
Everytime you go to pick up something the dog stops you.
To get rid of the dog you have to remove by throwing meat in a car, the lifting the car with a magnetic crane.
Solution: Bait Item Use, Real World Knowledge(magnetic cranes are for moving cars) + Obivious Item Use(crane)
You can't get into a Locked Room - Full Throttle
You cannot seem to get into a locked room. You may not know, though you may guess, that this is because an item is hidden from you.
Problem: Hidden FOO
The solution is to move a pillow and find a crowbar, for now I'm putting this as obvious item use though I might change it.
Solution: Real World Knowledge(people put things under their pillows), Obvious Item Use(move, pillow)
Spatial, Temporal and World Knowledge are best used as modifiers on the other solutions.
I think the list is quite interesting and if you think you've can regcognize anything similar I'd be interested to here. I intend to go through a few adventure games and see what I can find.
*I changed simple item interaction to obvious item interaction to reduce the scope. Some of the examples now read a bit weird.
Notable abscences are timed problems also I found it hard to categorize the sword fighting and insult collecting with pirates and then later using those collected insults in a new situation with the swordmaster.
Here's a program that will create puzzles patterns for you to fill out. All the patterns are documented there too.
You'll need the .net runtime. Though it's quite likely you already have it.